Background: Long-term immunosuppressive therapy, as provided to solid organ
transplant recipients, inevitably results in a significant inhibition of immune defenses; this
leads to frequent skin infections and malignancies, which represent an important cause of
morbidity and mortality for transplanted patients. The incidence and risk of skin carcinomas
are elevated in solid organ transplant recipients in comparison with the general population,
with a 10-fold increased risk for basal cell carcinoma and a 50-100-fold for squamous cell
carcinoma. The schedule of immunosuppressive drugs influences the type and timing of skin
malignancies, but a crucial role is also played by endogenous and exogenous risk factors.
Methods & Results: Here, we will review the state-of-the-art in chemoprevention of epidermal
carcinomas in order to provide useful information for clinicians involved in the management
of transplant recipients. One-hundred and forteen paper, published on peerreviewed
journals, has been included.
Conclusion: Chemoprevention would be key in controlling skin carcinogenesis in high-risk