Frontiers in Biomaterials

Frontiers in Biomaterials

Volume: 4

Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

This volume reviews the published knowledge about bioactive composites, protein scaffolds and hydrogels. Chapters also detail the production parameters and clarify the evaluation protocol for ...
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Hydrogels: Types, Structure, Properties, and Applications

Pp. 143-169 (27)

Amirsalar Khandan, Hossein Jazayeri, Mina D. Fahmy and Mehdi Razavi


Hydrogels are one of the important biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. The hydrogel scaffolds’ state-of-the-art properties for clinical applications are subject to on-going researches. Hydrogels, such as hybrid and protein-based ones, contain protein domains. Hydrogels show unique advantages compared to other polymeric materials; which made them applicable as periodontal materials and drug carriers, as well as bone matrices. The first description of its use was developed by a Scottish chemist, Thomas Graham, as a solid, jelly-like material that can have different physical and mechanical properties. Gels are defined as a substantially dilute crosslinked system, which doesn’t have flow in the steady-state. Gels can be typically characterized as liquids, while they behave like solids due to a 3D cross-linked network within the liquid. The gels’ IUPAC definition classifies them as a non-fluid polymer network that is expanded throughout its whole volume by a fluid. Thus, this chapter aims to describe the composition, synthesis techniques, and applications of hydrogel scaffolds for biomedical approaches.


Biotechnology, Hydrogel, Nanomaterials, Polymers, Scaffolds, Tissue Engineering.


Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.