Nicotine is one of the most abused substances worldwide and can cause several harmful effects
on health. One of the harmful effects, which is often ignored, is osteoporosis. Smoking has been
shown to cause a decrease in bone mineral density in humans. Animal studies have proven that nicotine
exerts negative effects on bone. The number of people who smoke increases each day. Those who
smoke start at a very young age and they usually smoke for years. This will increase the risk of developing
osteoporosis. As the prevalence of osteoporosis increases, the risk of fractures also increases.
The major concerns are disability following fractures, mortality due to complications after fractures
and the increasing cost of management and therapy. This paper will review the effects of nicotine on
bone and the potential natural products which can be used as treatment for nicotine-induced osteoporosis.
Keywords: Vitamin E, vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenols, nicotine, smoking, osteoporosis.
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