Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Bone Gla-protein (BGP) Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

Author(s): Maria Fusaro*, Maurizio Gallieni, Andrea Aghi, Giorgio Iervasi, Maria A. Rizzo, Andrea Stucchi, Marianna Noale, Giovanni Tripepi, Thomas Nickolas, Nicola Veronese, Fabrizio Fabris, Sandro Giannini, Lorenzo Calo, Antonio Piccoli, Maria C. Mereu, Laura Cosmai, Alberto Ferraro, Fiorenza Magonara, Michela Spinello, Stefania Sella, Mario Plebani.

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Volume 16 , Issue 6 , 2018

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: Bone Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-protein (BGP or osteocalcin) is a vitamin K-dependent protein involved in the regulation of bone mineralization. Smoking is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

Methods: We carried out a secondary analysis of the Vitamin K Italian (VIKI) study to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and BGP levels in patients with end stage renal disease. Data were collected in 370 haemodialysis patients, 37% (136) smokers (or ex-smokers) and 63% (234) nonsmokers. Vascular calcifications and vertebral fractures (quantitative morphometry) were identified on spine radiographs.

Results: Smokers had significantly lower BGP levels (152 vs. 204 µg/L, p=0.003). Smokers had lower plasma phosphate levels (4.2 vs. 4.7 mg/dl, p<0.01). Lower BGP levels were associated with aortic calcification (p<0.001), iliac calcification (p=0.042) and vertebral fractures (p=0.023). In addition, the regression model showed that smoking is associated with a significant reduction of total BGP levels by about 18% (p=0.01).

Conclusion: This is the first clinical study in a haemodialysis population, which identifies cigarette smoking as a potential factor that can lower BGP levels, a protective agent in bone and vascular health.

Keywords: BGP, osteocalcin, bone, smoke, haemodialysis, vascular calcification, vertebral fractures.

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Article Details

Year: 2018
Page: [603 - 609]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1570161115666170919182421
Price: $65

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