Background and Objective: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent non-cutaneous cancer
in men, which causes significant mortality among the patients. Since prostate cancer cells are
stimulated by androgen, effective androgen ablation in men is one of the essential strategies in the
management of prostate cancer.
Discussion: Several treatment options are available for different stages of prostate cancer. Hormone
therapy known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the first line treatment used to treat advanced
prostate cancer. Chemical castration by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists suppresses
lutenizing hormone production, which in turn inhibits the production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.
This will prevent the growth of prostate cancer cells. However, ADT causes deleterious
effects on bone health because the androgens are essential in preserving optimal bone health in men.
Conclusion: Various observational studies showed that long-term ADT for advanced or metastatic
prostate cancer was associated with decreased bone mineral density, as well as altered body
composition that might affect bone health. Considering the potential impact of osteoporotic fracture,
interventions to mitigate these skeletal adverse effects should be considered by physicians when
initiating ADT on their patients.