Background: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms
with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional
communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological
pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that
microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to
Method: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut
and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for
Result: Recent studies have reported that diverse forms of neuropsychiatric disorders (such as
autism, depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia) are associated with or modulated by variations in
the microbiome, by microbial substrates, and by exogenous prebiotics, antibiotics, and probiotics.
Conclusion: The microbiota–gut–brain axis might provide novel targets for prevention and treatment
of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, further studies are required to substantiate the clinical
use of probiotics, prebiotics and FMT.