Background: Diabetic Retinopathy is a leading cause of sight-threatening complication,
which occurs due to a number of physiological and metabolic abnormalities during later stages of diabetes.
Many of these abnormal changes are consistent with altered oxidative stress, inflammation, genetic
set up, advanced glycation end products, and hematological changes. So the altered levels of different
biomolecules related to these changes serve as important biomarkers to assess better evaluation
and early treatment of this disease.
Some treatments like laser therapy may be fast and specific but are more expensive, limited and can
result in severe contraindications. Several other novel treatment strategies have been evolved recently
besides classical approaches like control over hyperglycemia, hypertension, lipid profile to control
diabetic retinopathy. These precise treatments are based on targeting the elevated biomarkers in retina.
Such treatments include use of anti-VEGF therapy, intravitreal corticosteroids, gamigliptin and flavonoids.
Conclusion: The present review discusses the latest updates on diabetic retinopathy, common etiology,
different biomarkers and current treatments. In conclusion, perfection and proper supervision of
diabetes and early treatment of diabetic retinopathy are crucial in controlling the occurrence and severity
of this disease.