Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people
and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against
dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there
is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate
that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity. This can be
achieved by designing a multi-epitope peptide vaccine comprising B, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell epitopes. As recognition
of T cell epitopes are restricted by human leukocyte antigens (HLA), T cell epitopes which are able to recognize
several major HLAs will be preferentially included in the vaccine design. While peptide vaccines are safe,
biocompatible and cost-effective, it is poorly immunogenic. Strategies to improve its immunogenicity by the use
of long peptides, adjuvants and nanoparticle delivery mechanisms are discussed.
Keywords: Dengue, peptide vaccine, multi-epitope, synthetic peptides, HLA, cell mediated immunity.
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