Bioavailability of Selected Micronutrients in Teff-based Complementary Infant Foods

Author(s): Mesfin W. Tenagashaw*, John N. Kinyuru, Glaston M. Kenji, Eneyew T. Melaku, Susanne Huyskens-Keil.

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The problem of micronutrient malnutrition is affecting millions of infants in the developing countries. One of the major issues that aggravates the problem is lack of appropriately processed complementary foods in which the bioavailability of the major micronutrients is improved.

Methods: Teff, soybean and orange-fleshed sweet potato were separately processed into their respective flours and blended in a ratio of 70:20:10, respectively, to prepare household- and industrial-level complementary foods. The ingredients and developed complementary foods were analysed for their vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc and phytate contents. Moreover, phytate: mineral molar ratios of calcium, iron and zinc in the complementary foods were calculated to determine their bioavailability.

Results: The vitamin A values obtained in the complementary foods were appreciable; they were in the range of 91.89 to 160.97 µgRE/100 g. Phytate content of teff and soybean was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by the household practices employed for processing them. However, the reduction was not significant (p > 0.05) in the household-level complementary foods because of the small quantity of germinated teff flours used. Calcium, iron and zinc compositions of all complementary foods closely met the recommended levels for 6 to 8 month-old infants. Phytate: mineral molar ratios for calcium and zinc in all complementary foods were below maximum recommended limits indicating their good bioavailability. In case of iron, these ratios were above the critical limit except that of the industriallevel complementary foods.

Conclusion: Generally, complementary foods with improved compositions and bioavailability of the micronutrients analysed were developed from the teff-soybean-orange-fleshed sweet potato formulations.

Keywords: Bioavailability, complementary food, household, mineral molar ratio, minerals, orange-fleshed sweet potato, soybean, teff, vitamin A.

[1]
Wickramasinghe P. Micronutrients in childhood nutrition. Sri Lanka J Child Health 2013; 42(4): 157-65.
[2]
Northrop-Clewes CA, Thurnham DI. Global importance of vitamin¶ A deficiency in humans and its relationship to malnutrition In:Cakmak I, Ed. Impacts of agriculture on human health and nutrition Volume 1 [Internet]. Encyclopedia of Life Support Sys-tems;Available from: http://www.eolss.net/outlinecomponents/impacts-agriculture-human-health-nutrition.aspx
[3]
Hoddinott J. The economic cost of malnutrition. In: Eggersdorfer M, Kraemer K, Ruel M, et al., Eds. The road to goood nutrition.¶ Karger Publishers: Sydney In: 2013; p. 221.
[4]
McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Wojdyla D, de Benoist B. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO vitamin and mineral nutrition information system, 1993-2005. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12(4): 444.
[5]
Amagloh FK, Weber JL, Brough L, Hardacre A, Mutukumira AN, Coad J. Complementary food blends and malnutrition among infants in Ghana: A review and a proposed solution. Sci Res Essays 2012; 7(9): 972-88.
[6]
Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: Global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008; 371(9608): 243-60.
[7]
Dewey KG. Complementary feeding. In: Encyclopedia of human nutrition. 2nd ed. Elsevier Ltd: Tokyo. 2005; pp. 465-71.
[8]
PAHO/WHO Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child Global consultation on complementary feeding Washington, D.C. Pan American Health Organization. 2003.
[9]
Ogbonnaya JA, Ketiku AO, Mojekwu CN, Mojekwu JN, Ogbonnaya JA. Energy, iron and zinc densities of commonly consumed traditional complementary foods in Nigeria. Br J Appl Sci Technol 2012; 2(1): 48-57.
[10]
Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Gibbs M, Ferguson EL. A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complemen-tary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability. Food Nutr Bull 2010; 31(2)(Suppl.): 134-46.
[11]
Lutter CK. Macrolevel approaches to improve the availability of complementary foods. Food Nutr Bull 2003; 24(1): 83-103.
[12]
Hurrell RF, Reddy MB, Juillerat MA, Cook JD. Degradation of phytic acid in cereal porridges improves iron absorption by human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(5): 1213-9.
[13]
Hotz C, Gibson RS, Temple L. A home-based method to reduce phytate content and increase zinc bioavailability in maize-based complementary diets. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001; 52(2): 133-42.
[14]
Perlas LA, Gibson RS. Use of soaking to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from rice-based complementary foods used in the Philippines. J Sci Food Agric 2002; 82: 1115-21.
[15]
Ghavidel RA, Prakash J. The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2007; 40(7): 1292-9.
[16]
Daniel N, Cemaluk EAC. Effect of boiling and roasting on some antinutrient factors of asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) flour. Afr J Food Sci Technol 2011; 2(3): 75-8.
[17]
Alonso R, Rubio LA, Muzquiz M, Marzo F. The effect of extrusion cooking on mineral bioavailability in pea and kidney bean seed meals. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2001; 94(1-2): 1-13.
[18]
Seneviratne M, Gunasinghe WN, Gama-Arachchige N, Dissanayake NBU, Karunaratne AM. Mineral bioavailability in three locally consumed pulses processed using popular methods: Interpreted using molar ratios with phytic acid. Ceylon J Sci 2012; 41(1): 19-26.
[19]
Abebe Y, Bogale A, Hambidge KM, Stoecker BJ, Bailey K, Gibson RS. Phytate, zinc, iron and calcium content of selected raw and prepared foods consumed in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, and implications for bioavailability. J Food Compos Anal 2007; 20(3-4): 161-8.
[20]
Davidsson L, Ziegler EE, Kastenmayer P, Van Dael P, Barclay D. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants. Br J Nutr 2004; 91(2): 287.
[21]
WHO/UNICEF. Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries: A review of the current scientific knowledge Geneva: World Health Organization. 1998.
[22]
Kebede Z. Levels of essential elements in three tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)Trotter] varieties. MSc Thesis: Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2009.
[23]
Qiu L-J, Chang R-Z. The origin and history of soybean.In: Singh G, EdThe soybean: Botany, production and uses. CAB Int: UK. 2010; pp. 1-23.
[24]
Amagloh FK, Hardacre A, Utukumira AN, Weber JL, Brough L, Coad J. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives. Matern Child Nutr 2012; 8(4): 512-21.
[25]
Jalal F, Nesheim M, Agus Z, Sanjur D, Habicht J. Serum retinol concentrations in children are affected by food sources of β-carotene, fat intake and anthelmintic drug. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 623-9.
[26]
Tenagashaw MW, Kinyuru JN, Kenji GM, Melaku ET, Huyskens-Keil S. Teff-based complementary foods fortified with soybean and orange-fleshed sweet potato. J Food Res 2017; 6(1): 112-22.
[27]
Badau MH, Jidean IIA, Nkama I. Rheological behaviour of weaning food formulations as affected by addition of malt. Int J Food Sci Technol 2006; 41(10): 1222-8.
[28]
Iombor TTT, Umoh EJE, Olakumi E. Proximate composition and organoleptic properties of complementary food formulated from millet (Pennisetum psychostachynum), soybeans (Glycine max) and crayfish (Euastacus spp). Pak J Nutr 2009; 8(10): 1676-9.
[29]
WFP. Fortified blended food: Good manufacturing practice and HACCP principles. A handbook for processors in partnership with the U.N. World Food Programme 2004.
[30]
Haile F, Admassu S, Fisseha A. Effects of pre-treatments and drying methods on chemical composition, microbial and sensory qualities of orange-fleshed sweet potato flour and porridge. Am J Food Sci Technol 2015; 3(3): 82-8.
[31]
Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Kimura M. HarvestPlus handbook for carotenoid analysis. Technical Monographs Series 2. Washington,DC and Cali. 2004.
[32]
WHO/FAO. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition.A report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, 21-30 September 1998. 2nd ed. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Geneva, Swizerland 2004; pp. 361.
[33]
] AOAC International. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed.Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Washington, DC In: 2000.
[34]
Camire AL, Clydesdale FM. Analysis of phytic acid in foods by HPLC. J Food Sci 1982; 47: 575-8.
[35]
Norhaizan ME, Nor Faizadatul Ain AW. Determination of phytate, iron, zinc, calcium contents and their molar ratios in commonly consumed raw and prepared food in Malaysia. Malays J Nutr 2009; 15(2): 213-22.
[36]
Amagloh FK. Sweetpotato-based complementary food for infants in Ghana PhD dissertation: Massey University, Palmerston North,¶ New Zealand . 2012.
[37]
Burri BJ. Evaluating sweet potato as an intervention food to prevent vitamin A deficiency. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2011; 10(2): 118-30.
[38]
FAO/WHO. Requirements of vitamin A, thiamine, ribofiavine and niacin: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Group, Rome, Italy 1967.
[39]
Luo Y-W, Xie W-H, Jin X-X, Wang Q, He Y-J. Effects of germination on iron, zinc, calcium, manganese, and copper availability from cereals and legumes. CYTA J Food 2014; 12(1): 22-6.
[40]
National Research Council. Lost crops of Africa – Vol. 1: Grains.National Academies Press: Washington, DC 1996; 406 p.
[41]
Suma PF, Urooj A. Influence of germination on bioaccessible iron and calcium in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum). J Food Sci Technol 2014; 51(5): 976-81.
[42]
Inyang CU, Zakari UM. Effect of germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate chemical and sensory properties of instant “Fura” - A Nigerian cereal food. Pak J Nutr 2008; 7(1): 9-12.
[43]
Devi CB, Kushwaha A, Kumar A. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). J Food Sci Technol 2015; 52(10): 6821-7.
[44]
Hurrell RF. Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability. J Nutr 2003; 133(9): 2973S-7S.
[45]
Tatala S, Ndossi G, Ash D, Mamiro P. Effect of germination of finger millet on nutritional value of foods and effect of food supplement on nutrition and anaemia status in Tanzanian children. Tanzan Health Res Bull 2007; 9(2): 77-86.
[46]
Azeke MA, Egielewa SJ, Eigbogbo MU, Ihimire IG. Effect of germination on the phytase activity, phytate and total phosphorus contents of rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). J Food Sci Technol 2011; 48(6): 724-9.
[47]
Akaninwor JO, Okechukwu PN, Harcourt P, Harcourt P. Comparative nutrient and anti-nutrient levels in commercial and formulated weaning mixtures. Biokemistri 2004; 16(1): 15-21.
[48]
Umeta M, West CE, Fufa H. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia. J Food Compos Anal 2005; 18(8): 803-17.
[49]
Mosha TC, Gaga HE, Pace RD, Laswai HS, Mtebe K. Effect of blanching on the content of antinutritional factors in selected vegetables. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1995; 47: 361-7.
[50]
Amagloh FK, Brough L, Weber JL, Mutukumira AN, Hardacre A, Coad J. Sweetpotato-based complementary food would be less inhibitory on mineral absorption than a maize-based infant food assessed by compositional analysis. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012; 63(8): 957-63.
[51]
Phillippy BQ, Bland JM, Evens TJ. Ion chromatography of phytate in roots and tubers. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51: 350-3.
[52]
Baye K. Teff: Nutrient composition and health benefits: Ethiopia,Strategy Support Programme. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2014. Report No.: 67
[53]
Coulibaly A, Kouakou B, Chen J. Phytic acid in cereal grains. Am J Plant Nutr Fert Technol 2011; 1(1): 1-22.
[54]
Codex Alimentarius Comission. Guidelines on formulated complementary foods for older infants and young children: CAC/GL 8-1991 (Revised in 2013). Rome, Italy 2013.
[55]
Rowe LA. . Overview of Vitamin A. Project Healthy Children.Cambridge, USA In: 2012.
[56]
Jaarsveld Pvan,, Faber M. Orange sweetpotato as a staple or complementary food. In: Tanumihardjo SA, Ed Carotenoids and human health. Humana Press: Cape Town. 2013; pp. 303-15.
[57]
Low JW, Arimond M, Osman N, Cunguara B, Zano F, Tschirley D. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique. J Nutr 2007; 137(5): 1320-7.
[58]
Task Force of ILSI. Nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology. Compre-hensive Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2004; 3: 38-104.
[59]
Giugliani ERJ, Victora CG. Complementary feeding. J Pediatr 2000; 76: 253-62.
[60]
Hossain MI, Wahed MA, Ahmed S. Increased food intake after the addition of amylase-rich flour to supplementary food for malnourished children in rural communities of Bangladesh. Food Nutr Bull 2015; 26(4): 323-9.
[61]
Thaoge ML, Adams MR, Sibara MM, Watson TG, Taylor JRN, Goyvaerts EM. Production of improved infant porridges from pearl millet using a lactic acid fermentation step and addition of sorghum malt to reduce viscosity of porridges with high protein, energy and solids (30%) content. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2003; 19: 305-10.
[62]
Gupta SS. Development, acceptability and nutritional value of weaning mixtures. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1991; 41(2): 107-16.
[63]
Kataria A, Chauhan BM, Punia D. Antinutrients and protein digestibility (in vitro) of mungbean as affected by domestic processing and cooking. Food Chem 1989; 32: 9-17.
[64]
Greiner R, Konietzny U, Jany K-D. Phytate - An undesirable constituent of plant-based foods? Journal für Ernährungsmedizin 2006; 8(3): 18-28.
[65]
Fairweather-tait SJ, Symss LL, Smith AC, Johnson IT. The effect of extrusion cooking on iron absorption from maize and potato. J Sci Food Agric 1987; 39: 341-8.
[66]
WFP Technical specifications for the manufacture of super cereal (corn-soya blend). Version 141 2014; 1-8..


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2019
Page: [257 - 264]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1573401313666170912165424
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 26
HTML: 3
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1