Background: Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses
are the primary cause of nonbacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of
childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no
approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus
vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently
completed phase-I and II trials.
Methods: We performed a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature on
advances in the fields of norovirus and rotavirus therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis.
Results: Technological advances coupled with a proper understanding of viral morphology and replication over the
past decade has facilitated pioneering research on therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis against noroviruses and
rotaviruses, with promising outcomes in human clinical trials of some of the drugs and vaccines. This review focuses
on the various developments in the fields of norovirus and rotavirus therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis, such as
potential antiviral drug molecules, passive immunotherapies (oral human immunoglobulins, egg yolk and bovine
colostral antibodies, llama-derived nanobodies, and antibodies expressed in probiotics, plants, rice grains and insect
larvae), immune system modulators, probiotics, phytochemicals and other biological substances such as bovine milk
proteins, therapeutic nanoparticles, hydrogels and viscogens, conventional viral vaccines (live and inactivated whole
virus vaccines), and genetically engineered viral vaccines (reassortant viral particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) and
other subunit recombinant vaccines including multi-valent viral vaccines, edible plant vaccines, and encapsulated
Conclusions: This review provides important insights into the various approaches to therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis
against noroviruses and rotaviruses.