X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR),
which is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Cells contain two protein isoforms
of XBP-1, the active isoform (XBP-1S) and the inactive isoform (XBP-1U). Induction of UPR leads to
the generation of XBP-1S while XBP-1U is dominant in ER stress-free cells. XBP-1S is a transcriptional
activator and regulates the expression of a subset of UPR genes. Importantly, recent studies have demonstrated
the essential role of XBP-1S in various human diseases, such as viral infections. Many viruses
have evolved to manipulate UPR/XBP-1 of the infected cells to promote viral survival and replication.
In this review, we will summarize the current findings on the involvement of XBP-1 in viral infection/
replication and discuss the potential anti-viral strategies by targeting XBP-1.
Keywords: XBP-1, unfolded protein response, viral replication, anti-viral strategy, endoplasmic reticulum, secretory proteins.
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