Background: PET and SPECT imaging methods can be of excellent assistance
for the development of new nanoparticle drug delivery systems, and at the same time, these
investigations also offer the opportunity to produce exceptional new diagnostic and therapeutic
radiopharmaceuticals, as well.
With a multifunctional, nano-scaled drug delivery system, the diagnostic (imaging) methods
and the therapy (delivering drugs or beta-emitter radionuclides) can be carried out using the
same biological and pharmacological mechanisms. By combining therapy and diagnostics in
one method or in one specifically targeted nanoparticle system, we can product theranostic
pharmaceuticals, and its applications are important elements of personalized medicine.
Objectives: This review takes a short historical look back to the radiocolloids, the great ancestors
of (radiolabeled) nanoparticles and then describes the general features of current
types of PET and SPECT imaging associated nanoparticle-based products and key radiolabeling
methods; entering into details of potential prospective challenges related to radiotheranostic
approaches and imaging guided therapy.