Background: Pediatric osteoarticular infections are relatively rare but important diseases to
identify early and treat appropriately in order to avoid associated acute complications or long-term
Objective: To review the current epidemiology and etiology of pediatric osteoarticular infections as
well as recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.
Methods: We searched PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus databases for potentially relevant publications
in the past 5 years.
Results: Bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance profiles vary greatly worldwide, although
Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci and Kingella kingae are the predominant pathogens.
There is emerging evidence supporting the role of PCR assays for pathogen detection.
Conclusion: Current data suggest that most children with osteoarticular infections can be successfully
transitioned to oral antibiotics after having received at least several days of intravenous therapy, undergone
removal of significant infectious foci and having demonstrated clinical improvement with
down trending inflammatory markers. The optimal length and route of antimicrobial therapy have not
been fully elucidated and should depend on individual patient factors, the virulence of the pathogen
and the monitored clinical and laboratory response to therapy.