Andropause or male menopause is defined as androgen decline and onset of hypogonadism in the
aging male. Testosterone deficiency in adult male is associated with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease,
and heart failure. Type 2 diabetic male patients aged above 30 years showed low testosterone levels which is
common in diabetic men and had symptoms of hypogonadism. Male sexual dysfunction among diabetic patients
can include disorders of libido, ejaculatory problems, and erectile dysfunctions are common among people with
diabetes, particularly in older men who had diabetes for years. Older diabetics tend to have both impaired insulin
release as well as insulin resistance. There is growing evidence indicating the pathophysiological connections
among the mechanisms of oxidative damage by disruption of the oxidative balance, increased levels of enzymatic
glycation products in testicular region and glucose transporters, obesity and proinflammatory cytokines in male
infertile patients with diabetes. Epidemiological studies suggest that many clinical findings in diabetics are linked
to low testosterone levels. This article reviews pathophysiological mechanisms, observational studies, and clinical
implications of testosterone therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Testosterone, andropause, hypogonadism, insulin, diabetes mellitus, proinflammatory cytokines.
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