Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are considered as a serious
cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to report the
common Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) responsible for bloodstream infections in
children and determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Children Medical
Center (CMC) Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted within a six-year period (March
2011 to September 2016) for pediatric patients with BSI. Standard bacteriological
methods were performed for identification of the bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility
tests were evaluated by using the disk diffusion method according to the CLSI
Results: Among 68233 blood cultures, 2349 isolates were obtained which 59% of
them (N=1393) were GPB and 41% (n=956) were Gram-negative. The most common
GPB isolates were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (N= 609, 44%),
followed by Staphylococcus aureus (N=319, 23%), Enterococcus spp. (N=139,
10%), Streptococcus pneumonia (N= 106, 8%), Streptococci viridans (N= 180, 13%)
Micrococcus spp. (N=24, 1.7%) and Streptococcus group B (N= 16, 1%). The rate of
methicillin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS was 47% (N=116/246) and 91%
(N=557/609), respectively. Isolates of S. pneumoniae showed high-level of resistance
to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (N=28/33, 85%) and erythromycin
(N=59/91, 65%). S. viridans isolates and Micrococcus spp. were highly sensitive to
linezolid (100%). All of the tested isolates of Streptococcus group B were sensitive
to all the antibiotics used in this study. Among Enterococcus spp., 52% (N=69/133)
of the m were resistant to vancomycin.
Conclusions: Our results emphasize the importance of a valuable guide in identifying
resistance trends and selecting appropriate antibiotic.