Background: Obesity and micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the risk of cardiometabolic
diseases such are type 2 diabetes mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD).
Objective: We examined the frequency of concomitant deficit of Magnesium (Mg) and vitamin D in
obese patients and evaluated the connection of these combined deficiencies with indicators of cardiometabolic
risk in non-diabetic subjects.
Methods: Non-diabetic middle aged adults (n = 80; mean age 36 ± 4 years, 52% women) were recruited
based on weight/adiposity parameters [i.e. Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (FAT%)].
Cardiometabolic risk indicators [insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance
(HOMA-IR)) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score for predicting 10-year CVD)], Mg status (i.e.
total serum Mg concentration (TMg), Chronic Latent Mg Deficiency (CLMD) - 0.75-0.85 mmol/L),
vitamin D status (i.e. serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D deficiency
<50 nmol/l) were assessed.
Results: Among obese subjects 36% presented a combination of vitamin D deficiency and CLMD. In all
studied patients, 25(OH)D and TMg levels both, individually and combined, showed a negative linear
correlation with HOMA-IR and CVD risk. In subjects with CLMD (TMg <0.85 mmol/L), a negative
linear coefficient was found between 25(OH)D and, HOMA-IR and CVD risk, compared with subjects
with normal TMg status (TMg 0.85 mmol/L).
Conclusion: CLMD and vitamin D deficiency may commonly be present in obese non-diabetic subjects.
Individually and combined, both deficiencies predispose non-diabetic patients to increased risk of
cardiometabolic diseases. Maintaining normal Mg status may improve the beneficial effects of vitamin
D on cardiometabolic risk indicators.