Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered for the first time in 1976. It belongs
to the family Filoviridae, which causes hemorrhagic fever that could lead to death in
a few days. West Africa faced a major outbreak where symptoms appeared in the
form of chills, myalgia, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, and the disease finally reached
a severe state as a result of hemorrhagic complications and failure of multiple organs.
EBOV spreads by contact with body fluids of an infected person such as blood, saliva,
urine, and seminal fluid, and also spreads by a contact with contaminated surfaces.
Viral infection depends on the virus and host defenses. When the virus invades
the body, the immune system becomes activated in an attempt to neutralize it. However,
if this fails, EBOV viral infection spreads and leads to impaired innate and
adaptive immune responses and uncontrollable viral replication. Consequently, the
symptomatic patient is isolated and various medicinal regimens such as BCX-4430n
TKM- EBOV are used, to cure EBOV, though, a specific treatment is not available.
Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to survey and summarize the recent literature
pertaining to the outbreak of EBOV, systematic infection of the human body,
along with transmission and treatment. In addition, the review also aims to identify
areas that need more research and development in combatting this dangerous virus.
In the meantime, it should be noted that there is no fully FDA approved drug to treat
infections by this virus. Therefore, there is a pressing need to focus on drug discovery
along with public awareness to effectively manage any outbreaks in the future.