Background: Among therapeutic proteins, enzymes represent small and of course profitable
market. They can be used to treat important, rare, and deadly diseases. Enzyme therapy is the only
available treatment for certain disorders.
Method: Here, pharmaceutical enzymes are reviewed. They are categorized in four main groups, enzymes
in replacement therapy, enzymes in cancer treatment, enzymes for fibrinolysis, and finally enzymes
that are used topically for various treatments. Furthermore, enzyme gene therapy and future
perspective of therapeutic enzymes are mentioned in brief.
Results: There are many important approved enzymes in pharmaceutical market. Several approaches
such as point mutation, fusion protein designing, glycoengineering, and PEGylation were used to
achieve improved enzymes. Although sometimes enzymes were engineered to facilitate production
and purification process, appropriate delivery to target sites, extending half-life, and reducing immunogenicity
are among the main goals of engineering approaches.
Conclusion: Overall, enzymes play a critical role in treatment of common and rare diseases. Evaluation
of new enzymes as well as improvement of approved enzymes are of the most important challenges