Background: Extensive research in the last decade has clearly shown the close relationship
between dietary habits, food intake, and gene expression, which is also determined by the action of dietary
compounds on chromatin regulation.
Objective: Epigenetic modifications are referred to the change in gene expression without changing in
Methods: Recent studies revealed that epigenetic modulations such as DNA methylation, histone modification
(acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation), and chromatin remodeling provide significant
contributions to the development of human diseases, including obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover,
epigenetic information from the intrauterine and early developmental environments also contributes to
the adult metabolic states in both humans and mice.
Results: There is accumulating evidence for a role for epigenetic changes in the process of metabolic
memory and diabetes-associated complications. Nutrient-induced chromatin epigenetic changes via
DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, significantly contribute to metabolic
Conclusion: In this review we will focus on how dietary components which are widely present in daily
dietary, acting on epigenetic mechanisms, may exhibit various effects on metabolic diseases.