Cadmium, Organ Toxicity and Therapeutic Approaches: A Review on Brain, Kidney and Testis Damage

Author(s): Mariagrazia Rinaldi , Antonio Micali , Herbert Marini , Elena Bianca Adamo , Domenico Puzzolo , Antonina Pisani , Vincenzo Trichilo , Domenica Altavilla , Francesco Squadrito , Letteria Minutoli* .

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 24 , Issue 35 , 2017

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Abstract:

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal particularly hazardous for human health, as it is highly diffused and, therefore, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant. In fact, in the general population, the main sources of exposure are food, cigarette smoking, inhalation of ambient air, drinking water, contaminated soil or dust. Furthermore, an occupational exposure usually involves human during mining, fume inhalation or manufacturing nickel-cadmium battery, electroplating and paint pigments that utilize Cd.

Methods: We undertook a structured search in literature about Cd. This metal is noxious on the cells of many organs, among which the kidney, the testis and the brain will be considered in this review.

Results: The toxic effects induced by Cd include many specific mechanisms, such as the oxidative stress, cellular death and inflammation. As no specific therapy for the prevention or treatment of the morbidity and mortality associated with Cd exposure is available, the state of the art of the therapeutic approaches is illustrated.

Conclusion: Nowadays, a therapy able to counteract Cd toxicity is still lacking and the development of new therapeutic agents is requested.

Keywords: Cadmium, toxicity, kidney, brain, testis, therapeutic approaches.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 24
ISSUE: 35
Year: 2017
Page: [3879 - 3893]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170801101448
Price: $58

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