Biological Mass Spectrometry for Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease
Pp. 110-126 (17)
Hani Nasser Abdelhamid and Hui-Fen Wu
Mass spectrometry (MS) has advanced the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
In the present chapter, applications of mass spectrometry for the diagnosis of
Alzheimer's disease were summarized. Mass spectrometry showed new exciting results,
offered high sensitivity (in the femtomolar range), showed high selectivity, has better
accuracy, offered high throughput, were extremely rapid (the entire process required
few minutes) and can be used for quantitative, qualitative and imaging. Recent mass
spectrometry techniques based on nanotechnologies replaced some of the classical MS
techniques. These new technologies improved the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
Mass spectrometry covered wide range of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers such as
amyloid β, total tau protein (t-tau), α-synuclein, posttranslational modification
(phosphorylated tau protein, protein S-nitrosation (SNO), racemization, methylation,
chlorination and others) and metals ions. From the analytical point of view, mass
spectrometry offered detection of large number of biomarkers in a single test. Mass
spectrometry has significantly advanced Alzheimer's diagnosis of living patient and
postmortal. Monitoring Alzheimer's biomarkers using MS is very promising for the
diagnosis in early stages of the disease. However, the proper interpretation of MS
profiling is critical and requires careful investigations. Furthermore, the identification
of the biomarkers using MS profile is affected by many key variables that have to be
considered during the analysis.
Department of Chemistry, Assuit University, Assuit, 71515, Egypt.