Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects lymphocytes, resulting in acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome. Oxidative stress may play an important role in HIV pathogenesis.
Melatonin has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary melatonin levels in HIV-positive patients
and a healthy control group.
Methods: Forty-nine HIV-positive and 49 healthy subjects were included in this study. Patients' drug
consumption and clinical examination results were registered in questionnaires. Unstimulated whole
saliva was collected in the morning. The melatonin levels were measured by melatonin ELISA kits.
Statistical analyses were performed with STATA 12, using t-test and chi-squared test.
Results: Salivary melatonin levels were significantly lower in the case group in comparison with the
healthy control group (P=0.001). Age was significantly higher in the case group. Chi-squared test
showed no statistically significant difference between the case and control groups in smoking
(P=0.591) and addiction (P=0.204) but gender differences were observed (P=0.001).
Conclusion: Salivary melatonin level as an antioxidant was lower in HIV-positive patients. Further
studies are necessary to understand the exact role of melatonin in HIV-positive patients and its therapeutic