Background: With cardiovascular disease accounting for approximately 50% of deaths in
patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, it is pertinent to initiate anti-diabetic medications with cardiovascular
benefits. This systematic clinical review critically examines the clinical therapeutic effect of
Methods: Data were gathered from articles indexed in PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline from
2010 - 2017, with the following search terms, "lixisenatide" and “GLP-1 receptor agonist”. Studies
written in the English language were included.
Results: Thirteen clinical studies which evaluated the efficacy of lixisenatide were analyzed. Results
from these studies showed that lixisenatide is an effective monotherapy in the reduction of glycated
hemoglobin (A1C), Postprandial Glucose (PPG) and Fasting Blood Glucose (FPG). As an add-on therapy
to metformin or sulfonylureas and insulin, it was found to be clinically effective compared to placebo.
In all reviewed trials, there were higher proportions of patients who achieved A1C < 7% or <
6.5% compared to placebo without a corresponding increase in weight. Finally, the use of lixisenatide
was not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The most common adverse events
in all lixisenatide groups were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Conclusion: Lixisenatide appears to be safe and effective therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes
mellitus. It is not associated with either the risk of cardiovascular events or symptomatic hypoglycemia.
Finally, lixisenatide may be best used as an adjunct therapy for patients who are inadequately
controlled with other diabetic medications, or select group of patients at risk of insulin induced obesity,
hypertension or heart failure.