Background and Rationale: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice
of measuring pharmaceutical drug concentrations in patients’ biofluids at designated intervals to allow
a close and timely control of their dosage. This practice allows for rapid medical intervention in
case of toxicity-related issues and/or adjustment of dosage to better fit the therapeutic demand. Currently,
TDM is performed in centralized laboratories employing instruments, such as immunoassay
analyzers and mass spectrometers that can be run only by trained personnel. However, the time required
for the preparation, samples analysis, and data processing, together with the related financial
cost, severely affects the application of TDM in medical practices. Therefore, a new generation of
analytical tools is necessary to respond to the timely need of drug administration or reduction aiming
at effectively treating oncologic patients.
Aim of the Review: State-of-the-Art Technologies for TDM: Technological advances in the field
of nanosciences and biosensors offer the unique opportunity to address such issues. The interest for
the so-called nanobiosensors is considerably increasing, particularly in drug discovery and clinical
chemistry, even though there are only few examples reporting their use for TDM. The techniques
employing nanobiosensors are mainly based on electrochemical, optical, and mass detection systems.
Conclusions: In this review, we described the most promising methodologies that, in our opinion,
will bring TDM towards the next stage of clinical practice in the future.