Safety of Nanomedicine: Neuroendocrine Disrupting Potential of Nanoparticles and Neurodegeneration
Pp. 239-262 (24)
Eva Rollerova, Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Jana Tulinska, Jevgenij Kovriznych, Alexander Kiss and Sona Scsukova
The development of nanomaterials (NMs) for applications in biomedicine
inclusive of drug delivery as well as medical imaging is currently undergoing an
enormous expansion. NMs may have many different forms and characteristics,
depending on their size, chemical composition, manufacturing method, and surface
modification. The use of NMs in the field of neurodegenerative diseases diagnosis and
treatment implies the ability of NMs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter
the central nervous system (CNS) in dependence on their physico-chemical properties,
composition, and functionalization. The same properties that make the NMs beneficial
for their applications may also affect their interactions with biological systems and
have unintended consequences on human health. Several in vivo and in vitro studies
have demonstrated that intentional exposure to NMs with potential use for diagnostic
and therapeutic purposes might induce neurotoxic effects resulting in neurodegeneration
in different CNS regions. Recent evidence has indicated that neuroendocrine
disrupting effects by the action of NMs in dopaminergic, serotoninergic, and
gonadotropic systems might be relevant to neuropathogenesis and neurodegeneration.
In line with developmental origin of adult diseases, it is forewarning the evidence that
pre- and post-natal exposure to different risk factors including NMs may lead to
phenotypic heterogeneity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases in later
stages of the life. In the light of the above mentioned events, relevant test models are
required to assess: i) the role of NMs in the development and progression of
neurodegenerative disease; ii) the effects of NMs on neurodevelopment upon in utero
exposure of foetuses or neonatal exposure of pups; or iii) the neuroendocrine disrupting
effects during critical period being crucial for the development of neurodegenerative
diseases. Early identification of potential negative features of NMs using
interdisciplinary research approaches (biological, toxicological, clinical, engineering)
could minimize the risk of newly designed/developed nanomedicines.
Endocrine disruption, Gonadotropins, Nanosafety, Nanomedicine,
Nanotoxicology, Nanoparticles, Neuroendocrinology, Neurodegeneration.
Slovak Medical University, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Toxicology and Faculty of Medicine, Laboratory of Immunotoxicology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.