Biomarkers Associated with Bleeding Risk in the Setting of Atrial Fibrillation

Author(s): Skevos Sideris*, Stefanos Archontakis, George Latsios, George Lazaros, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Manolis Vavuranakis, Charalampos Vlachopoulos, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Constantinos Tsioufis, Dimitris Tousoulis.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Prevention of thromboembolic disease, mainly stroke, with oral anticoagulants remains a major therapeutic goal in patients with atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, despite the high efficacy, anticoagulant therapy is associated with a significant risk of, frequently catastrophic, and hemorrhagic complications. Among different clinical and laboratory parameters related to an increased risk of bleeding, several biological markers have been recognized and various risk scores for bleeding have been developed.

Objectives/Methods: The aim of the present study is to review current evidence regarding the different biomarkers associated with raised bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation.

Results: Data originating from large cohorts or the recent large-scale trials of atrial fibrillation have linked numerous individual biomarkers to an increased bleeding risk. Such a relation was revealed for markers of cardiac physiology, such as troponin, BNP and NT-proBNP, markers of renal function, such as GFR and Cystatin or hepatic function, markers involving the system of coagulation, such as D-dimer and Von Willebrand factor, hematologic markers, such as low haemoglobin or low platelets, inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6, other factors such as GDF-15 and vitamin-E and finally genetic polymorphisms. Many such biomarkers are incorporated in the bleeding risk schemata developed for the prediction of the hemorrhagic risk.

Conclusions: Biomarkers were introduced in clinical practice in order to better estimate the potential risk of haemorrhage in these patients and increase the prognostic impact of clinical risk scores. In the last years this concept is gaining significant importance.

Keywords: Atrial Fibrillation, Haemorrhage, Bleeding Risk Score, Biomarkers, Atrial Fibrillation Complications, HAS-BLED score, Intracranial Haemorrhage, Anticoagulants.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2019
Page: [824 - 836]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170718124742
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