Pharmacology and Literature Review Based on Related Death and Non-Fatal Case Reports of the Benzofurans and Benzodifurans Designer Drugs

Author(s): Bernardino Barcelo*, Isabel Gomila.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 36 , 2017

Abstract:

Background: Benzofurans and benzodifurans are two groups of psychoactive substances that had originally been synthesized for research purpose. Benzofurans’ structure is quite similar to the known recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine together with its active metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. Benzodifurans are closely related to phenethylamines, but have more hallucinogens effects and much longer duration of action. This study aims to review the accessible evidence-based literature on benzofurans and benzodifurans pharmacology and toxicology.

Methods: A literature search on benzofurans and benzodifurans has been conducted using PubMed. We reviewed articles up to February 2017 and also included data from various governmental websites and discussion groups.

Results: This review describes the emergent literature that illustrates the chemical composition of these drugs, patterns of use, pharmacology, toxicology, desired and clinical effects, and treatments of patients. It also provides a compilation of case reports.

Conclusion: The knowledge regarding usage prevalence, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, acute toxic effects, the effects desired on patients and drug related mortality attributed to these drugs is still limited. Nowadays, there are no specific guidelines available to treat benzofurans or dibenzofurans intoxications. For that reason, clinical effects should be the base of treatment. Backing exposures analytically confirmed in clinical and forensic cases and reported clinical effects need to be combined with these compounds while monitoring its prevalence.

Keywords: Benzofurans, benzodifurans, new psychoactive substances, prevalence, pharmacology, toxicology.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 36
Year: 2017
Page: [5523 - 5529]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170714155140
Price: $58

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