Background: Tooth root development begins after the completion of tooth crown development.
Both the tooth root and crown undergo a series of interactions between the epithelium and adjacent
mesenchymal cells. Although many studies have evaluated tooth crown formation, little is known
about the regulatory mechanisms of tooth root development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding
RNAs that regulate protein expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms and participate in a
broad range of biological processes, from development to tumorigenesis. The functional importance of
miRNAs on the development of tooth root and periodontal tissues has been suggested in many studies.
Objective: To summarize the functions of miRNAs on tooth root and periodontal tissue development.
Results: MicroRNAs are important to root odontogenesis, Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath and periodontal
tissue development, and have functions in stem cells from dental or periodontal tissues.
Conclusion: The modulation of miRNAs in tooth root and periodontal tissue development is fine tuning.