T Cells in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Role and Therapeutic Strategies
Pp. 1-28 (28)
Carolina V. De Almeida, Ramon Kaneno and Amedeo Amedei
Conventional treatments of gastrointestinal cancers based on surgical
resection and chemotherapy are not enough to eradicate potentially relapsing tumor
cells and can also impair the immune system functions. Immunotherapies aim to help
the body to eradicate cancer and other diseases, by modulating the immune system.
They can be performed by active approaches, usually orchestrated by dendritic cell
vaccines that present a specific tumor associated antigen to T cells, or passive
approaches, which have the T cells as protagonist, and are based on antitumor
antibodies, or adoptive cell transfer. T lymphocyte subsets can exhibit different role
face to a tumor scenario, varying from an effective cellular antitumor response to a
regulatory participation. Although a lot of protocols to combat cancer progression have
been proposed, T cell-based immunotherapies in gastrointestinal cancers are still not
approved for clinical applications mainly because of their side effects. Nowadays,
promising protocols combining two or more approaches, aiming to create an efficient
therapy without or with fewer side effects. In this chapter, we made a review about the
role of T cells on cancer, especially focusing on gastrointestinal cancer immunotherapeutic
Adoptive immunotherapy, Gastrointestinal cancer, Immunotherapy,
Infiltrating lymphocyte, Tumor lymphocyte engineering, T lymphocytes.
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 350134 Florence, Italy.