Background: Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system
as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In humans
most resistant to the development of psychiatric disorders, including MDD, are observed a
greater degree of resilience resulting from stress. Less resilience is associated with neuroendocrine
and neuroinflammatory markers, as well as with glutamatergic system dysregulation. Thus, this
review we highlighted findings from literature identifying the function of glutamatergic system,
microglial activation and inflammation in resilience.
Methods: We conducted a review of computerized databases from 1970 to 2017.
Results: There is an association between microglial activation and glutamatergic system activation
with stress vulnerability and resilience.
Conclusions: Glutamate neurotransmission, including neurotransmitter synthesis, signalling, and
glutamate receptor functions and expression all seem to be involved with both stress vulnerability
and resilience. Moreover, inflammation and microglial activation mediate individual differences in
resilience and the risk of stress-induced MDD.