Background: Biofilm is a microbial community of microbes that attach to a
surface and are enclosed in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Formation of
these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antimicrobial agents are the
main reasons for many persistent and chronic infections. Chemotherapy of these infections
is unsatisfactory for various reasons including unacceptable toxicity, poor efficacy
and drug resistance. In this connection, the last few decades have witnessed wide investigations,
which have been geared to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of natural products,
including medicinal plant extracts and phytochemicals.
Objective: This paper gives a review on the plant extracts and phytochemicals with antibiofilm
capability, which hopefully provides useful information and guidance for future
Method: This review is to summarize the natural products, including various phytochemicals, decoctions, plant
fractions and extracts that have shown anti-biofilm activity. Literatures were collected from published articles
that reported in vitro or in vivo anti-biofilm activity of natural products.
Results: A total of 95 related references were found. The phytochemicals, fractions and extracts are grouped
by their general classes or by their putative active components. More than 90 bioactive anti-biofilm compounds
have been identified from different parts of the plants. The inhibitory concentration of the natural products was
also included, and some of them were investigated for their possible anti-biofilm mechanism.
Conclusion: This review has demonstrated solid evidences that plants are an excellent source to provide abundant
natural compounds for the development of preventative and therapeutic agents against biofilm-based