Background: Research on Chromogranin A (CGA) and its derived fragments
convincingly demonstrated the multifunctional activity of the 21 amino acid peptide named
Catestatin (CST: human CGA352-372, bovine CGA344-364, rat CGA367-387). This review
aims to provide a synopsis of the current information concerning the biological role of CST
in health and disease.
Methods: Structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature.
Results: CST is mainly known as an inhibitor of the nicotinic-dependent Catecholamine
(CA) release, and an anti-hypertensive peptide, but its role includes a modulation of antioxidant
and immune defense, epidermal function, and adipose tissue homeostasis. CST influences
the cardiocirculatory system acting both indirectly, via the autonomic nervous system,
and directly by influencing the basal cardiac function, and the stretch-dependent myocardial
performance. It also counteracts the effects of adrenergic stimulation on the heart and protects
the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, acting in pre- and postconditioning
Conclusions: The knowledge on CST is constantly expanding, thanks to a growing number
of human studies that document its involvement in physiological modulation and in many
severe diseases, also revealing its applicative potential as a clinical biomarker.