Effects of Fermentative Factors on Biochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Probiotic Iranian Fermented Milk (Doogh)

Author(s): Elaheh Ahmadi, Reza Mohammadi, Sara Hasanvand, Milad Rouhi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian*, Zahra Sarlak.

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 15 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Doogh is a traditional Iranian fermented milk drink that is currently a very popular product in Iran. In the present study, the combined effects of incubation temperature, type of starter culture, and final pH of fermentation on the viability of two probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (A) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (B)) and biochemical and sensory characteristics of probiotic Doogh were investigated.

Method: Different treatments were prepared with yoghurt starter culture containing probiotics, using reconstituted skimmed milk with 6% of solid nonfat. They were incubated at 38°C or 44°C until pH 4.0 or pH 4.5 and were kept for 21 days at 4°C or 8°C storage temperature. The biochemical properties of treatments were evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The viable count and sensory attributes of treatments were studied at the end of fermentation and at the end of storage.

Results: Results showed that the greatest mean pH drop rate, mean acidity increase rate and mean redox potential increase rate and the shortest incubation time were observed in treatments incubated at 44°C with final pH of 4.5. The highest survival of both probiotic strains during storage was related to treatments with fermentation temperature of 38°C and final pH of 4.5. Treatments ABY1-38°C-4.0 had the highest sensorial total acceptance at the end of refrigerated storage.

Conclusion: It would be concluded that the best treatment was ABY3-38°C-4 stored at 8°C in regards of probiotics’ viability and sensory characteristics of Doogh. Thus, controlling the temperature of refrigerated storage is the most importance factor during storage and distribution.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium lactis, doogh, fermentation, probio, Lactobacillus acidophilus, viability.

Granato D, Branco GF, Cruz AG, Faria JA, Shah NP. Probiotic dairy products as functional foods. Compr Rev Food Sci 2010; 9: 455-70.
Oliveira RPS, Perego P, Converti A, Oliveira MN. The effect of inulin as a prebiotic on the production of probiotic fibre-enriched fermented milk. Int J Dairy Technol 2009; 62: 195-203.
Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Mousavi SM, et al. Preliminary investigation of the combined effect of heat treatment and incubation temperature on the viability of the probiotic mico-organisms in freshly made yogurt. Int J Dairy Technol 2006a; 59: 8-11.
Mohammadi R, Mortazavian AM. Review article: Technological aspects of prebiotics in probiotic fermented milks. Food Rev Int 2011; 27: 192-212.
Gismondo MR, Drago L, Lombardi A. Review of probiotics available to modify gasterointestinal flora. Intestinal J Antimicrob Agents 1999; 12: 287-92.
Holzapfel WH, Schillinger U. Introduction to preandprobiotics. Food Res Int 2001; 35: 109-16.
Shah NP. Functional foods from probiotics and prebiotics. Food Technol 2001; 55: 46-53.
Salminen S, Ouwehand A, Benno Y, Lee YK. Probiotics: How should they be defined? Food Sci Technol 1999; 10: 107-10.
Gueimonde M, Delgado S, Mayo B, Madiedo PR, Margolles A, Reyes-Gavilan CG. Viability and diversity of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteriumpopulations included in commercial fermented milks. Food Res Int 2004; 37: 839-50.
Ahmadi E, Mortazavian AM, Fazeli MR, Ezzatpanah H, Mohammadi R. The effects of inoculants variables on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of Doogh. Int J Dairy Technol 2012; 65: 274-81.
Mohammadi R, Mortazavian AM. Technological aspects of prebiotics in probiotic fermented milks. Food Rev Int 2011; 27: 192-2.
Hattingh AL, Viljoen BC. Yogurt as probiotic carrier food. (Review). Int Dairy J 2001; 11: 1-17.
Brabandere AG, Baerdemaeker JG. Effect of process conditions on the pH development during yogurt fermentation. J Food Eng 1999; 41: 221-7.
Talwalkar A, Kailasapathy K. A review of oxygen toxicity in probiotic yogurts: Influence on the survival of probiotic bacteria and protective techniques. Food Sci Food Safety 2004; 3: 117-24.
Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Azizi M, et al. Viability of calcium-alginate-microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in Iranian yogurt drink (Doogh) during refrigerated storage and under stimulated gastrointestinal conditions. Aust J Dairy Technol 2008; 63: 25-30.
Iran National Standard for plain Doogh; No. 2453, 2008. [Internet document]. Available from: http://www.isiri.org/UserStd/StdSearch.aspx.
Iran National Standard for probiotic yogurt; No. 11325, 2008. [Internet document]. Available from: http://www.isiri.org/UserStd/ StdSearch.aspx.
Vinderola CG, Reinheimer JA. Culture media for the enumeration of Bifidobacteriumbifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. Int Dairy J 1999; 9: 497-505.
Mortazavian AM, Khosrokhavar R, Rastgar H. Effects of dry matter standardization order on biochemical and microbiological characterisitics of freshly made probiotic Doogh. Ital J Food Sci 2009; 22: 98-104.
Sadaghdar Y, Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR. Survival and activity of 5 probiotic Lactobacilli strains in 2 types of flavored fermented milk. Food Sci Biotechnol 2012; 21: 151-7.
Heydari S, Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Mohammadifar MA, Ezzatpanah H, Sohrabvandi S. Biochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurt containing various prebiotic or fiber compounds. Ital J Food Sci 2011; 23: 153-63.
Akalin AS, Fenderya S, Akbulut N. Viability and activity of bifidobacteria in yoghurt containing fructooligosaccharide during refrigerated storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 2004; 39: 613-21.
Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Reinheimer J, Sohrabvandi S. MRS-bile agar: Its suitability for enumeration of mixed probiotic cultures in cultured dairy products. Milchwissenschaft 2007; 62: 270-2.
Iran National Standard for Sensory Evaluation of fermented dairy products; No. 4940, 1999. [Internet document]. http://www.isiri. org/UserStd/StdSearch.aspx
Mortazavian AM, Sohrabvandi S, Mousavi SM, Reinheimer JA. Combined effects of temperature-related variables on the viability of probiotic micro-organisms in yogurt. Aust J Dairy Technol 2006; 61: 248-52.
Lacroix C, Yildirim S. Fermentation technologies for the production of probiotics with high viability and functionality. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2007; 18: 176-83.
Tamime AY, Saarela M, Sondergaard AK, Mistry VV, Shah NP. Production and maintenance of viability probiotics microorganism in dairy products. In: Tamime AY, Ed.Probiotic dairy products. Blackwell Publishing Ltd: London, UK 2005; pp. 39-97.
Dave RI, Shah NP. Viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in yogurts made from commercial starter cultures. Int Dairy J 1997; 7: 31-41.
Samona A, Robinson RK. Effect of yoghurt cultures on the survival of bifidobacteria in fermented milks. J Society Dairy Technol 1994; 47: 58-60.
Hughes DB, Hoover DG. Viability and enzymatic activity of bifidobacteria in milk. J Dairy Sci 1995; 78: 268-76.
Shah NP. Probiotic bacteria: Selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods. J Dairy Sci 2000; 83: 894-907.
Mortazavian AM, Sohrabvandi S. Sensory properties of yoghurt. ETA Publisher: Iran 2004.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [40 - 47]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1573401313666170614092802
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 10