Background: Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the most common group of primary
immunodeficiency disorders, resulting from different defects in the development and function of B
cell lineage. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)
are two of the major types of PADs. Optimal growth and subsequently bone health could potentially
compromise due to the interference of several factors in PAD with childhood onset. In the present
study, our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with CVID and XLA.
Methods: BMD of 37 CVID and 19 XLA patients was examined. Total BMD was determined
by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the calculated scores were compared internally and
externally with age-sex matched and ethnic-specific reference. Related factors associated with
bone density including immune-related complications, serum calcium, phosphate, total alkaline
phosphatase, 25(OH) vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were recorded.
Results: The median age at the time of study was 20 years among all patients and was not statistically
different between CVID and XLA groups and the mean of body mass index (BMI) was
19.4±4.6 kg/cm². Thirty-eight (67.9%) of total patients had normal BMD and 18 (32.1%) patients
had a low BMD. BMI was positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck. The
number of low BMD patients in CVID (40.5%) group was more than the XLA (15.8%).
Conclusion: Beside nutritional, gastrointestinal and infectious complications which are shared in
both groups of patients, CVID patients are more prone to alteration of BMD due to association with
lymphoproliferative and endocrine diseases. Therefore routine evaluation of bone density and
treatment adjustment should be considered in all PAD patients particularly in CVID patients.