Introduction: As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants often have to face a number of
life threatening abiotic and biotic stresses. Plants counteract the stresses through morphological and
physiological adaptations, which are imparted through flexible and well-coordinated network of signalling
and effector molecules, where phytohormones play important role. Hormone synthesis, signal
transduction, perception and cross-talks create a complex network. Omics approaches, which include
transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have opened new paths to understand such
Objective: This review concentrates on the importance of phytohormones and enzymatic expressions
under metal stressed conditions.
Conclusion: This review sheds light on gene expressions involved in plant adaptive and defence responses
during metal stress. It gives an insight of genomic approaches leading to identification and
functional annotation of genes involved in phytohormone signal transduction and perception. Moreover,
it also emphasizes on perception, signalling and cross-talks among various phytohormones and
other signalling components viz., Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS).