Background: Dyslexia, a heterogeneous syndrome, is the most recognized
Developmental Reading Disorder (DRD) with 5-17% prevalence and poses as a significant
disability. Its core deficits are: Phonological deficits, poor visual attention span, selective
deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, sustained visual attention problems, visuospatial
functioning and difficult image reproduction from memory. Much remains to be
accomplished clinically to address these deficits.
Methods: Mindfulness Based Rehabilitation of Reading, Attention & Memory (MBR-RAM©)
is a translational mindfulness based cognitive behavioral therapy developed by the first
author. MBR-RAM uses focused attention enhancement visual meditation techniques
(Sanskrit: trataka) in therapist-assisted and home-practice formats to rehabilitate reading
deficits, visual inattention, visual motor incoordination, information processing speed and
visual memory. Visual motor incoordination indicates inability to control hand movements
guided by the visual cues while reading letters. Three Caucasian subjects in this study
included an 8-year-old girl and two boys aged 9 and 10 years. The objectives were to study
the changes pre- and post-intervention with respect to their scores on the various clinical and
Results: Compared to the baseline, all three subjects showed clinical and statistically
significant improvements in the outcome measures, which were sustained for at least 6
months after study completion. There were no adverse effects in them.
Conclusion: Results of this pilot study indicate that MBR-RAM© is a feasible, low cost
treatment, which is effective for rehabilitating some important deficits of dyslexia. The results
need replication in future studies with better methodology to make definite conclusions.