α-Glucosidase Inhibition, Antioxidant and Docking Studies of Hydroxycoumarins and their Mono and Bis O-alkylated/acetylated Analogs

Author(s): Parvesh Singh*, Nomandla Ngcoya, Ramgopal Mopuri, Nagaraju Kerru, Neha Manhas, Oluwakemi Ebenezer, Md. Shahidul Islam.

Journal Name: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2018

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Abstract:

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disease illustrated by abnormally high levels of plasma glucose or hyperglycaemia. Accordingly, several α-glucosidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of diabetes and other degenerative disorders. While, a coumarin ring has the privilege to represent numerous natural and synthetic compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activities e.g. anti-cancer, anti-HIV, anti-viral, anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive properties. Besides this, coumarins have also shown potential to inhibit α-glucosidase leading to a generation of new promising antidiabetic agents. However, the testing of O-substituted coumarins for α-glucosidase inhibition has evaded the attention of medicinal chemists.

Methods: For O-alkylation/acetylation reactions, the hydroxyl coumarins (A-B) initially activated by K2CO3 in dry DMF were reacted with variedly substituted haloalkanes at room temperature under nitrogen. The synthesized compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inhibitory activity and anti-oxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity. In silico docking simulations were conducted using CDocker module in DS (Accelrys) to explore the binding modes of the representative compounds in the catalytic site of α-glucosidase.

Results: All the coumarin analogues (A1, B1, A2-A10, B2-B8) including their precursors (A-B) were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition using acarbose as a standard inhibitor. All the mono O-alkylated coumarins (except A1) showed significant (p <0.05) α-glucosidase inhibition relative to the hydroxyl coumarin (A) with IC50 values ranging between 11.084±0.117 to 145.24± 29.22 µg/mL. Compound 7-(benzyloxy)-4, 5-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one (A9) bearing a benzyl group (Ph-CH2-) at position 7 showed a remarkable (p <0.05) increase in the activity (IC50 = 11.084±0.117 µg/mL), almost four-fold more than acarbose (IC50 = 40.578±5.999 µg/mL). The introduction of –NO2 group dramatically improved the anti-oxidant activity of coumarin, while the O-alkylation/acetylation decreased the activity.

Conclusion: The present study describes the synthesis of functionalized coumarins and their evaluation for α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity under in vitro conditions. Based on IC50 data, the mono O-alkylated coumarins were observed to be stronger inhibitors of α-glucosidase with respect to their bis O-alkylated analogues. Coumarin (A9) bearing O-benzyloxy group displayed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition, even higher than the standard inhibitor acarbose. The coumarin (A10) bearing –NO2 group showed the highest anti-oxidant activity amongst the synthesized compounds, almost comparable to the ascorbic acid. Finally, in silico docking simulations revealed the role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces in locking the compounds in catalytic site of α-glucosidase.

Keywords: Hydroxycoumarins, α-glucosidase, alkylation, docking, homology modelling, diabetes mellitus.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2018
Page: [127 - 135]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1570180814666170602081941
Price: $58

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