Background: Despite the extended laboratory and clinical study of sepsis, its diagnosis remains
a clinical challenge. The initiation of sepsis activates many different biochemical and immunological
pathways being expressed by alterations of various molecules in human tissues. The detection and
measurement of the concentration of such molecules, known as biomarkers, may be a diagnostic tool of
great significance for clinicians dealing with suspected sepsis. Additionally, biomarkers may predict patients
´ outcome and may play a role in monitoring response to therapy.
Methods: Most relevant clinical and experimental biomarker studies on sepsis were retrieved and reviewed
in this article.
Results: Although many biomarkers were evaluated for the diagnosis and prognosis in sepsis, until
now not one has been proven to be absolutely reliable in the clinical field. Currently C-reactive proteine
(CPR) and procalcitonin (PCT) are used worldwide routinely, nevertheless their values may elevate
in clinical settings without sepsis, while they often fail to provide reliable prediction of the patient
Conclusion: This review outlines most relevant circulating biomarkers in sepsis.