Background: Odontogenesis is fundamentally controlled by the genome. However, epigenetic
factors have indispensable effects during odontogenesis. Previous studies have shown that exogenous
factors, such as the environment, that cause hypomethylation and hypermethylation in DNA
may lead to dental differences in monozygotic twin pairs. In addition, abnormalities in epigenetic
regulation could induce disruptions in odontogenesis, thereby causing tooth malformation or agenesis.
Objective: This review overviews the epigenetic mechanisms involved in odontogenesis with the aim
of establishing a fundamental vision of tooth development, which might be useful in further research
in odontogenesis and therapy for dental diseases.
Results: We summarized articles about epigenetics in odontogenesis. Here, we present concrete epigenetic
regulation mechanisms in odontogenesis that have been reported previously, following the
order of microRNA, DNA methylation and histone modification.
Conclusion: Epigenetic factors influence the proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis of cells that
play indispensable roles during the process of odontogenesis which have the ability to exquisitely
regulate the tooth number, size and shape.