Background: New generation hybrid solar cell has the promising potential in the energy
industry due to the most economics energy device, abundant and flexible design for thin film photovoltaic
device. The aim of the paper to increase the performance of DSSC by loading optimum
amount of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to maximize the textural and
electronic properties of photoanode film. The nanocrystal growth on rGO is an important approach to
produce nanocomposite film for DSSCs system, since controlled nucleation and growth affords optimal
chemical interactions and bonding between TiO2 and rGO, since the rGO is an electron rich
material which attract very strong electrical and mechanical coupling within the hybrid nanocomposite
Methods: By using a facile and cost effective TiO2-rGO nanocomposite film was successfully
formed via sol gel method and using titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) and rGO as our starting material.
The nanocomposite was turns into paste and applied to FTO glass using Doctor Blade Method.
The current-voltage characteristics and electron impedance was analyzed to obtained the overall
performance of the device.
Results: The enhancement performance of photoanode and DSSC can be observed by the HRTEM,
FESEM, reduction of band gap, photocurrent density-voltage and electron impedance. From the tauc
plot relation, band gap energy of TiO2 shows Eg of 3.20 eV and the TiO2-rGO band gap energy, Eg of
2.64 eV shows that rGO nanocomposite was slightly red shifted towards a higher wavelength of
about 500 nm, assignable to a narrowing band gap energy effect. From the FESEM and HRTEM
results there are reduction of size in the TiO2-rGO film where the reduction in size for TiO2 attribute
from the rGO that as it is an electron rich material/ surface where the electron attraction between Ti4+
and the rGO surface contributes to reduction in size of TiO2. The photovoltaic performance of TiO2-
rGO nanocomposite (η = 4.18%) was higher than that of pure TiO2 sample (η = 2.21%) due to the
high photocatalytic activity during the irradiation. From the EIS results, TiO2-rGO DSSCs semicircle
was decreased from the TiO2 semicircle arc reflecting lower charge recombination and faster charge
transfer in the interface. The effective path due to 2D graphene bridge that contributes to effective
photogenerated electron separation and transport across the photoanode.
Conclusion: As for conclusion, TiO2-rGO nanocomposite sample significantly improved the overall
conversion efficiency of DSSCs by approximately two times higher than that of the pure TiO2 sample.
The improvements in device properties contributed by the homogeneously dispersed of small
TiO2 particles on rGO sheet and the pluronic template helps in increasing the active area as it promotes
more porosity on the TiO2-rGO nanocomposite to enhance the dye attachments, thus contribute
to the better photocurrent efficiency, and improve electron transfer in the material interface during