Role of Ectonucleotidases in Synapse Formation During Brain Development: Physiological and Pathological Implications

Author(s): Ivana Grković*, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Nataša Mitrović.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 17 , Issue 1 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'- nucleotidase (eN).

Methods: Studies related to the expression patterns of ectonucleotidases and their known features during brain development are reviewed, highlighting involvement of these enzymes in synapse formation and maturation in physiological as well as in pathological states.

Results: During brain development and in adulthood all ectonucleotidases have diverse expression pattern, cell specific localization and function. NPPs are expressed at early embryonic days, but the expression of NPP3 is reduced and restricted to ependymal area in adult brain. NTPDase2 is dominant ectonucleotidase existing in the progenitor cells as well as main astrocytic NTPDase in the adult brain, while NTPDase3 is fully expressed after third postnatal week, almost exclusively on varicose fibers. Specific brain AP is functionally associated with synapse formation and this enzyme is sufficient for adenosine production during neurite growth and peak of synaptogenesis. eN is transiently associated with synapses during synaptogenesis, however in adult brain it is more glial than neuronal enzyme.

Conclusion: Control of extracellular adenine nucleotide levels by ectonucleotidases are important for understanding the role of purinergic signaling in developing tissues and potential targets in developmental disorders such as autism.

Keywords: Brain development, ectonucleotidases, NPP, TNAP, NTPDase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, synaptogenesis, autism.

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