Background: Mycotoxins, which are toxic metabolites produced by specific fungi in
food crops, can cause serious problems for human’s health. Ochratoxin A is a natural toxin produced
by Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. These fungi can grow in different plants and climates,
and therefore, contaminate the crops all over the world. Ochratoxin A, as one of the most
common mycotoxin, is a potentially carcinogen biometabolite found in a wide range of foods from
cereals to spices.
Objective: This review illustrates the efficient prevention and remediation strategies to eliminate this
hazardous mycotoxin. Its chemical structure, toxic effects, and safe intake will be briefly described.
Results: The variety strategies have been used to decrease OTA in foods. Some of the important
techniques for OTA decontamination are physical and biological methods. Physical decontamination
is through the application of heat, microwaves and radiation. The biological decontamination of
mycotoxins which are done by microorganisms via the degradation and binding. Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma are the common microorganisms
used for remediation of OTA. The combination of probiotics and prebiotics is eficient on toxin
removal. Among probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus is the most popular one.
Conclusion: physical methods especially hot processing have some disadvantages in the food
appearance and nutritional values. The biological methods are so popular recently. Using probiotics
to remove OTA in contaminated foods seems highly efficient and also environmentally friendly.