Background: Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction induced by the aberrant
excitability of certain neurons. Despite advances in surgical technique and anti-epileptic drug in
recent years, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and lead to a serious morbidity in
the world. The ketogenic diet refers to a high-fat, low-carbohydrate and adequate-protein diet.
Currently, its beneficial effects on epileptic seizure reduction have been well established. However,
the detailed mechanisms underlying the anti-epileptic effects of ketogenic diet are still poorly
understood. In this article, the possible roles of ketogenic diet on epilepsy were discussed.
Methods: Data was obtained from the websites including Web of Science, Medline, Pubmed,
Scopus, based on these keywords: “Ketogenic diet” and “epilepsy”.
Results: As shown in both clinical and basic studies, the therapeutic effects of ketogenic diet might
involve neuronal metabolism, neurotransmitter function, neuronal membrane potential and neuron
protection against ROS.
Conclusion: In this review, we systematically reviewed the effects and possible mechanisms of
ketogenic diet on epilepsy, which may optimize the therapeutic strategies against epilepsy.