Background: Neonatal and paediatric encephalopathy can be a diagnostic challenge for
clinicians. Potential aetiologies include hypoxic brain injury, stroke, infection, trauma, metabolic
and electrolyte abnormalities, autoimmune conditions and drug ingestion. Radiology plays a key
role in determining aetiology and, even when normal, directing further assessment.
Conclusion: We present a review of the neuroradiological manifestations of neonatal and paediatric
encephalopathies which will aide paediatricians and radiologists in their assessment of children
with this condition.