Background: Variability in response to pharmacological treatment is one of the
most important issues in the clinical practice at first exclusively attributed to clinical and
demographic factors such as age, sex, nutritional status, alcohol abuse, smoking, presence
of comorbidities and polypharmacy. Nowadays, it is well known that also genetic factors
can modify the outcomes of pharmacological treatments. Polymorphisms in genes encoding
molecules involved in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may influence
efficacy, tolerability, and safety of medications; thus, the knowledge of these genetic variants
may help physicians to individualize and optimize the therapies.
Objective: The main aim of this review is to summarize the current scientific evidence
about cardiovascular pharmacogenomics.
Conclusion: Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics is recommended only for some antiplatelet,
anticoagulant and antihypercholesterolemic drugs thanks to standardized pharmacogenetic
tests that are helpful in preventing thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. Despite
many studies have demonstrated that the application of pharmacogenetics may be useful
also to individualize the therapy with other cardiovascular drugs, the paucity of large
clinical trials and of cost-effectiveness studies limits the translation of such knowledge
into clinical practice.