Natural Antimicrobials in Food Processing: Bacteriocins, Peptides and Chitooligosaccharides
Pp. 55-108 (54)
Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Laidson P. Gomes, Cyntia S. Freitas, Patricia R. Pereira and Vânia F. Paschoalin
Studies on bioactive proteins and peptides, as well as their potential
applications, have continuously increased over the last 20 years. They can be found in
all living organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and have been detected in
different food matrices, maybe the most useful and reliable sources of these molecules.
These proteins are referred to as bioactive compounds since they can modify several
cellular bioprocesses in order to improve human health human health. Bioactive
molecules can occur naturally or can be released from a principal protein after chemical
or enzymatic hydrolysis or food fermentation. Bioactive peptides and proteins derived
from food matrices or released from microorganisms can present intrinsic
antihypertensive, hormone-like, antimicrobial, anti-cancer or antioxidant activities.
There is a large demand for natural preservatives and for minimally processed food,
researchers have intensified the search for bioactive peptides and proteins, especially
those with antimicrobial properties, which are powerful substitutes for conventional
food preservatives. This chapter describes the features of antimicrobial peptides and
their combination to polymeric materials for food preservation by preventing
microorganism proliferation. For this purpose, the bioactive molecules are complexed
to chitosan bioactive molecules with chitosan biofilms, creating an antimicrobial
packaging. Despite the changes that can occur in the physical properties of these
biofilms, the incorporation of antimicrobial peptides to bioplastic biofilms could
guarantee the quality and safety of foodstuffs, contributing in extending their shelf life.
Antimicrobial mechanism, Antimicrobial spectrum, Bacteriocins,
Bioplastic films, Biopolymer, Chemical compounds, Chitosan, Food preservation,
Food safety, Natural packing, Peptides.
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Qumica, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149 - Cidade Universitária, 21949-909, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil.