Zoonotic infections are increasingly becoming public health menaces and
are usually transmitted to humans due to unsuitable environmental conditions. One
of them is hepatic capillariasis, caused by the parasite Capillaria hepatica, primarily
a disease of rodents, with hepatic manifestations in humans. Although its prevalence
is very low, it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, with cases reported
from all over the world.
The main infective form for humans is the embryonated egg of the parasite, which
hatches in the intestine and ultimately colonize the liver. The larvae mature and reproduce,
and eventually form embryonated eggs, which cause chronic focal inflammation
and septal hepatic fibrosis.
Clinical presentation mainly consists of fever, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly and eosinophilia.
Spurious infection with unembryonated eggs cause gastrointestinal symptoms.
Diagnostic modalities include liver biopsy, ultrasonography, CT scan, immunological
tests like ELISA and IIFT. The infection can be treated mainly with a
combination of benzimidazoles like thiabendazole, mebendazole and albendazole;
The study emphasizes the need for hepatic capillariasis to be considered as a differential
diagnosis in cases of suspected hepatitis, leptospirosis, abdominal lymphadenopathy
or other hepatic or parasitic infections prevalent in the region concerned;
and meticulously assess the cases to facilitate early diagnosis and prompt treatment,
thus reducing the distress faced by patients.