Divergent Roles of IRS (Insulin Receptor Substrate) 1 and 2 in Liver and Skeletal Muscle

Author(s): Sabine Sarah Eckstein*, Cora Weigert, Rainer Lehmann.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 24 , Issue 17 , 2017

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Abstract:

IRS1 and IRS2 are the most important representatives of the IRS protein family and critical nodes in insulin/IGF1-signaling. Although they are quite similar in their structural and functional features they show tissue-specific differences. In this review, we outline the functions of IRS1 and IRS2 in skeletal muscle and liver with regard to their importance for metabolism, growth and differentiation. Mechanisms contributing to IRS1 and IRS2 dysregulation in disease states as well as consequences thereof are discussed. IRS1 plays the dominant role in skeletal muscle. It is crucial for normal growth and differentiation of myofibers, insulin-dependent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The presence of IRS2 in skeletal muscle is negligible for insulin-induced glucose uptake and the general role of IRS2 in muscle is still not fully understood. In liver IRS1 and IRS2 are important to mediate insulindependent regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and complement each other in the diurnal regulation thereof. IRS1 in the liver is more important for signaling in the late refeeding period, whereas IRS2 signaling is mostly dominating in the period directly after food intake and during fasting. Importantly, the expression level of IRS1 and IRS2 is different within the liver lobule, which could be an explanation for the phenomenon of selective insulin resistance. Dysregulated muscular or hepatic abundance and/or phosphorylation status of IRS1 and IRS2 are important factors in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and muscle wasting.

Keywords: Insulin receptor substrate, skeletal muscle, liver, metabolism, insulin resistance, phosphorylation, degradation.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 24
ISSUE: 17
Year: 2017
Page: [1827 - 1852]
Pages: 26
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170426142826
Price: $58

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