Background: Excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen leads to oxidative
damage to tissue and organs. Capsaicin (CAP), a pungent component found in red pepper can prevent oxidative
Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of CAP loaded nano-emulsomes
(EML) against the oxidative stress of rat livers induced through sodium fluoride (NaF).
Method: EML was prepared by thin film hydration method that is development of thin lipid film followed
by hydration and sonication. EML was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and
X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. EML was evaluated for drug entrapment, in vitro drug release, and in vivo
Results: In vitro drug release study of optimized formulation showed that 50% of CAP was released within
50.21 min while 85% CAP was released in 227.4 min. Single oral dose of free CAP and CAP loaded EML
were given to rats 2 hour after NaF administration. Membrane of hepatic cells was damaged by NaF and it
was judged by the estimation of lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and catalase activity.
The administration of CAP loaded EML 2 hr after NAF consumption showed significant decrease in ROS
level compared to free CAP. EML containing CAP was more effective in comparison to free CAP in controlling
the lipid peroxidation that is thiobarbituric acid substance augmentation in liver by the treatment of NaF.
The administration of CAP loaded EML showed significant increase in catalase activity compared to free CAP
Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrated that CAP loaded EML may be accepted as an effective therapeutic
formulation in preventing oxidative damage.