Overview of Cantharidin and its Analogues

Author(s): Guofang Wang, Jian Dong, Liping Deng*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 25 , Issue 17 , 2018

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Abstract:

Background: Cantharidin has been categorized as highly toxicant in Chinese medicine. But cantharidin can efficiently treat different types of diseases, such as molluscum contagiosum. While cantharidin is quite useful, unfortunately, due to its side effects, increasing regulations have limited access to this useful therapeutic option. Cantharidin's toxic effects have caused it to fall into disuse for most legitimate medical purposes. Although cantharidin generates effects and its advantages must be realized. Recently, cancer affects people’s life more and more. Because cantharidin can treat some cancers, so solutions must be used to reduce side effects. This review aims to describe some its analogues, several efficient methods to inhibit the side effects of cantharidin and pharmacogenomics of cantharidin.

Methods: We searched for research about cantharidin by entering the database. Then evaluated these papers and analyzed their founding, solution, mechanism, etc., and targeted to screen the papers related to the content of our research, and then sorted them out in accordance with the solution, mechanism research and other content. Finally, these content was unified into a framework.

Results: Some cantharidin's analogues were found that they show some similar functions to cantharidin and we found that norcantharidin, acylthiourea derivatives, cantharidinamides, anhydride-modified derivatives and other derivatives have less side effects. The modified cantharidin analogues reduce toxicity in hepatocytes. Cantharidin consists of a six-ring and a five-ring, the moiety of oxygen on the six-ring and the anhydride section exhibit biochemical activity. Protein phosphatases are associated with many cellular processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression and so on. Cantharidin can cause apoptosis and double-stand breakage of DNA. Cantharidin and norcantharidin can efficiently inhibit the activity of mammalian and plant protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in vivo. Cantharidin inhibits PP5 at the nanomolar level with an IC50 value of 600 nM. PP5 can manage the cellular survival, death, proliferation and other some intracellular biological activities in mammals. After cantharidin’s treatment, the level of EtPP5 mRNA expression was downregulated. Their also can be used to inhibit the Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), angiogenesis and the expression of A549 human lung cancer cells, trigger eryptosis and induced bladder cancer cell apoptosis. We found that using Vitamin C and ginsenosides and translating cantharidin into nanoparticles can minimize the cantharidin side effects in the patients.

Conclusion: Cantharidin can inhibit various tumor cell lines. Cantharidin causes both DNA single- and double- strand breaks and induces apoptosis. Although cantharidin shows some toxicity for human, its anti-cancer effects should be taken seriously. Several viable methods can help solve this problem. The most important pharmacogenomics of cantharidin is that cantharidin can inhibit PPs, because PPs are associated with many cellular processes. This prospect is very broad and needs to continue studying.

Keywords: Cantharidin, cancer, toxicity, inhibition, analogues, protein phosphatase.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 25
ISSUE: 17
Year: 2018
Page: [2034 - 2044]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170414165253
Price: $58

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